Round 2: Emerging Patterns for June – Cross-sectional Analysis
Below is a snapshot of emerging patterns for issue-domains and clusters of blocks across 9 states. Details of clusters are given in the Appendix.
The following charts present averages for each cluster, by domain.
(Please note: In the following charts, different colours (for bars) are used to represent different states, these colours do not have any other significance.)
I. Access to Food & Water
The chart below gives the average availability and access to water and food. The food category includes access to the subsidized Public Distribution System (PDS) for food grains & cooking oil and also private distributors. It also explicitly looks at special distribution facilities for those who are food-insecure.
II. Access to Healthcare Facilities
The healthcare category includes not only Covid19-related facilities but also general healthcare operations (health centres, functioning of and ASHA and ANM workers) which may be adversely affected due to focus on Covid19.
III. Access to Cash and Credit
This category is important because households have many essential needs besides food & water and healthcare. These needs vary considerably across individuals and typically can be fulfilled through liquidity (cash or other financial means). Therefore this category proxies essential needs (partly also overlapping with food & water and healthcare). Liquidity is measured through ability to withdraw cash from own account and access to credit & government cash benefits.
We explore the situation of out-migrants, returned migrants and in-migrants (from the perspective of a block or cluster). For out-migrants we focus on ability to return; for returned migrants the focus is on food and income source; for in-migrants the focus is food, shelter and income source. The graph below is for returning migrants.
We focus on income loss for four broad livelihood categories for vulnerable groups: marginal farmers and labour in agriculture; labour outside the agriculture sector; craft workers; and workers in the informal service sector & those operating precarious micro-businesses.
We also separately explore access to work through NREGA, the government’s flagship employment guarantee scheme (comparing present situation with the pre-Covid situation and also gauging excess demand).
VI. Social Discrimination
Economic distress and restraints on mobility can impact security, social relations and well-being. We explore the following issues: social situation of migrants, healthcare workers & suspected / actual Covid patients; religion-based tensions; other forms of conflict triggered by the distress situation, including the role of ‘fake news’.
In June, I-CARD covered 377 blocks across 9 states. The blocks are grouped into 27 clusters based on geographical location, contiguity and development history focusing on the presence of vulnerable groups and significant rural population.